JavaScript

JavaScript hass come a long way since its first iteration (called LiveScript by Netscape) back in 1995. It was primarily a client-side (browser) scripting language., used to program dynamic behavior, animation, in browsers. Netscape changed the name to JavaScript when it released version 2 of the Netscape browser.

In November of 1996 Netscape submitted JavaScript Specification to ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association) to make it an official international standard. ECMA adopted it and renamed the language ECMAScript. The current edition is v5.1 which was released in June 2011. ECMA is in the midst finalizing v6 of ECMAScript, expected to be GA in mid 2015.

The emergence of JavaScript as a complete application programming language in recent years is primarily due its innovation on the server-side, platforms such as Node.js have enabled developers to write client-side and server-side applications in 100% JavaScript.

JavaScripts’s openness and ease of use, has attracted millions of developers from the open source community in addition to thousands of developers from corporations. They have built hundreds of Javascript frameworks / packages / libraries and contributed them to the open source community, thus enabling developers to leverage these contributions as building blocks to develop modern web applications.

The emergence of REST APIs and JSON message payloads as de-facto standards for modern applications, has positioned JavaScripts as the dominant programming language.

( Will be covering REST / JSON / MEAN stack in a future post.)

Ubiquitous JavaScript and newcomer Swift garnered 2014 programming language of the year honors from respective ranking organizations.The top designations are based on increased popularity or interest rather than total usage by the TIOBE Index, which anointed JavaScript, and the PopularitY of Programming Language Index (PYPL), which crowned Swift.
(Source: http://adtmag.com/articles/2015/01/08/top-languages-of-2014.aspx)

TIOBE Index:
1. C
2. Java
3. Objective-C
4. C++
5. C#
6. PHP
7. JavaScript
8. Python
9. Perl
10. PL/SQL

PYPL:
1. Java
2. PHP
3. Python
4. C#
5. C++
6. C
7. JavaScript
8. Objective-C
9. Swift
10. Ruby